Background and aim: The occurrence of peri-procedural myocardial ischemia with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been documented, but its significance remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of myocardial ischemia during ERCP procedures and to analyze the potential association between myocardial ischemia and post-ERCP complications.
Methods: Ambulatory 24-h ST-segment monitoring from 30 min prior to 24 h after ERCP was obtained on 71 patients from September 2006 to August 2007. Changes in vital signs during ERCP, post-ERCP complications, and their outcomes were recorded and analyzed.
Results: Cardiac ischemia occurred in 13 patients (18.3%) during ERCP and one patient developed myocardial infarction. More patients in the ischemic group (38.5%) than in the non-ischemic group (5.2%) had ST-T changes in pre-ERCP resting electrocardiography (P < 0.01). Hypotension during ERCP was found only in the ischemic group (15.4% vs 0%; P = 0.03). Patients with cardiac ischemia during ERCP had a significantly higher rate of elevated serum amylase and lipase levels (53.8% vs 15.5%; P < 0.01) and post-ERCP pancreatitis (30.8% vs 6.9%; P = 0.03). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that cardiac ischemia during ERCP (OR: 5.21, P = 0.050) and pancreatic duct cannulation (OR: 5.7, P = 0.036) were independent predictors for post-ERCP pancreatitis.
Conclusions: ST-T changes on resting electrocardiography and intra-procedural hypotension are risk factors of myocardial ischemia during ERCP. Post-ERCP hyperamylasemia, hyperlipasemia, and pancreatitis were associated with myocardial ischemia during ERCP.