Identification of novel FMR1 variants by massively parallel sequencing in developmentally delayed males

Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Oct;152A(10):2512-20. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33626.


Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of developmental delay, is typically caused by CGG-repeat expansion in FMR1. However, little attention has been paid to sequence variants in FMR1. Through the use of pooled-template massively parallel sequencing, we identified 130 novel FMR1 sequence variants in a population of 963 developmentally delayed males without CGG-repeat expansion mutations. Among these, we identified a novel missense change, p.R138Q, which alters a conserved residue in the nuclear localization signal of FMRP. We have also identified three promoter mutations in this population, all of which significantly reduce in vitro levels of FMR1 transcription. Additionally, we identified 10 noncoding variants of possible functional significance in the introns and 3'-untranslated region of FMR1, including two predicted splice site mutations. These findings greatly expand the catalog of known FMR1 sequence variants and suggest that FMR1 sequence variants may represent an important cause of developmental delay.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA / genetics
  • DNA / isolation & purification
  • DNA Primers
  • Developmental Disabilities / genetics*
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein / genetics*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Introns
  • Luciferases / genetics
  • Male
  • Mutation, Missense
  • Phenotype
  • Plasmids
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Reference Values
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Trinucleotide Repeat Expansion / genetics


  • DNA Primers
  • FMR1 protein, human
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein
  • DNA
  • Luciferases