Validation of measures of satisfaction with and impact of continuous and conventional glucose monitoring

Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010 Sep;12(9):679-84. doi: 10.1089/dia.2010.0015.


Background: The evaluation of patient-reported outcomes (e.g. impact, satisfaction) is important in trials of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). We evaluated psychometric properties of the CGM Satisfaction Scale (CGM-SAT) and the Glucose Monitoring Survey (GMS).

Methods: CGM-SAT is a 44-item scale on which patients (n=224) or parents (n=102) rated their experience with CGM over the prior 6 months. GMS is a 22-item scale on which patients (n=447) or parents (n=221) rated the blood glucose monitoring system they were using (home glucose meter with or without CGM) at baseline and 6 months.

Results: The alpha coefficient for the CGM-SAT was > or = 0.94 for all respondents and for the GMS was > or = 0.84 for all respondents at baseline and 6 months. Parent-youth agreement was 0.52 for the CGM-SAT at 6 months and 0.24 and 0.20 for the GMS at baseline and 6 months for the Standard Care Group, respectively. Test-retest reliability of the GMS at 6 months for controls was r=0.76 for adult patients, 0.63 for pediatric patients, and 0.43 for parents. Factor analysis isolated measurement factors for the CGM-SAT labeled Benefits of CGM and Hassles of CGM, accounting for 33% and 9% of score variance, respectively. For the GMS, two factors emerged: Glucose Control and Social Complications, accounting for 28% and 9% of variance, respectively. Significant correlations of CGM-SAT with frequency of CGM use between 6 months and baseline and GMS with frequency of conventional daily self-monitoring of blood glucose at baseline support their convergent validity.

Conclusions: The CGM-SAT and GMS are reliable and valid measures of patient-reported CGM outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods*
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / psychology
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / standards
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / psychology
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Parents
  • Patient Satisfaction*
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin