Background: In April 2009, the pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus emerged and spread globally. The objective of this study was to describe the independent risk factors for hospital mortality and the treatment effect of corticosteroids among patients with 2009 influenza A(H1N1) infection.
Methods: We retrospectively obtained clinical data of 155 adult patients with confirmed infection of 2009 influenza A(H1N1) in 23 hospitals in Beijing, China from October 1 to December 23, 2009. Risk factors for hospital mortality were identified with multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: Among the 155 patients, 90 (58.1%) were male, and mean age was 43.0 ± 18.6 years, and comorbidities were present in 81 (52.3%) patients. The most common organ dysfunctions included acute respiratory failure, altered mental status, septic shock, and acute renal failure. Oseltamivir was initiated in 125 patients (80.6%), only 16 patients received antiviral therapy within 48 hours after symptom onset. Fifty-two patients (33.5%) were treated with systemic corticosteroids, with a median daily dose of 80 mg. Twenty-seven patients (17.4%) died during hospital stay. Diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 8.830, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.041 to 38.201, p = 0.004) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level (OR 1.240, 95% CI 1.025 to 1.500, p = 0.027) were independent risk factors of hospital death, as were septic shock and altered mental status. Corticosteroids use was associated with a trend toward higher hospital mortality (OR 3.668, 95% CI 0.987 to 13.640, p = 0.052).
Conclusions: Hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza had relative poor outcome. The risk factors at hospitalization may help clinicians to identify the high-risk patients. In addition, corticosteroids use should not be regarded as routine pharmacologic therapy.