Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling

Cell Calcium. Aug-Sep 2010;48(2-3):133-42. doi: 10.1016/j.ceca.2010.07.007. Epub 2010 Aug 25.


In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), proinflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines at much lower levels than seen within the islet during insulitis. These low-dose effects have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca(2+)](i) in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca(2+)](i) was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acidosis / metabolism
  • Acidosis / pathology
  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type / metabolism
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type / physiology
  • Calcium Signaling / physiology*
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / toxicity
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / pathology*
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / pathology
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Inflammation Mediators / physiology*
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / metabolism
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / pathology
  • Islets of Langerhans / metabolism*
  • Islets of Langerhans / pathology*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases / metabolism


  • Atp2a1 protein, mouse
  • Calcium Channels, L-Type
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation Mediators
  • Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases
  • Glucose
  • Calcium