Potential animal models of seasonal affective disorder

Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011 Jan;35(3):669-79. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.08.005. Epub 2010 Aug 26.


Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by depressive episodes during winter that are alleviated during summer and by morning bright light treatment. Currently, there is no animal model of SAD. However, it may be possible to use rodents that respond to day length (photoperiod) to understand how photoperiod can shape the brain and behavior in humans. As nights lengthen in the autumn, the duration of the nightly elevation of melatonin increase; seasonally breeding animals use this information to orchestrate seasonal changes in physiology and behavior. SAD may originate from the extended duration of nightly melatonin secretion during fall and winter. These similarities between humans and rodents in melatonin secretion allows for comparisons with rodents that express more depressive-like responses when exposed to short day lengths. For instance, Siberian hamsters, fat sand rats, Nile grass rats, and Wistar rats display a depressive-like phenotype when exposed to short days. Current research in depression and animal models of depression suggests that hippocampal plasticity may underlie the symptoms of depression and depressive-like behaviors, respectively. It is also possible that day length induces structural changes in human brains. Many seasonally breeding rodents undergo changes in whole brain and hippocampal volume in short days. Based on strict validity criteria, there is no animal model of SAD, but rodents that respond to reduced day lengths may be useful to approximate the neurobiological phenomena that occur in people with SAD, leading to greater understanding of the etiology of the disorder as well as novel therapeutic interventions.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cricetinae
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Humans
  • Melatonin / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder* / metabolism
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder* / pathology


  • Melatonin