Comparing adult and adolescent transsexuals: an MMPI-2 and MMPI-A study

Psychiatry Res. 2011 Apr 30;186(2-3):414-8. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.07.033.


Sex, sexual orientation and age have been shown to be important in relation to psychological functioning in transsexuals. However, only few studies to date took these factors into account and not earlier have adolescent transsexuals participated. In this study the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2 or MMPI-A, respectively) was administered to 293 adults (207 male to female transsexuals (MtFs), mean age 38.04 (range 18.56-65.62) and 86 female to male transsexuals (FtMs), mean age 33.26 (range 18.95-64.30)) and 83 adolescents (43 MtFs, mean age 15.70 (range 13.16-18.70) and 40 FtMs, mean age 15.64 (range 13.05-18.56)) with a gender identity disorder (GID). Of adult MtFs, 33% were categorized as "homosexuals" and 66% as "non-homosexuals". Of adult FtMs, 77% were categorized as "homosexuals" and 33% as "non-homosexuals". Adult FtMs functioned significantly better than MtFs on three clinical scales. Contrary to what is often assumed, no differences in psychological functioning were found in the adult transsexuals with regard to sexual orientation, except on one clinical scale. Most remarkably, significantly more adults with GID scored in the clinical range on two or more clinical scales than adolescents with GID. Therefore, early medical intervention may be recommendable for adolescents with GID.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Female
  • Humans
  • MMPI*
  • Male
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Personality / physiology*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychological Tests
  • Sexual Behavior
  • Transsexualism / diagnosis*
  • Transsexualism / psychology*