Therapeutic options for carotid in-stent restenosis: review of the literature

J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2010 Oct;21(10):1471-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jvir.2010.06.010.


To critically evaluate published evidence on therapeutic options for in-stent restenosis (ISR) after carotid artery stent (CAS) placement, a systematic analysis of studies reporting interventions for ISR after CAS placement was conducted. In total 20 studies were found, describing 100 interventions after carotid ISR in 96 patients. The interventions most performed were repeat percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; n = 54), repeat CAS placement (n = 31), and carotid endarterectomy with stent removal (n = 9). No periprocedural complications were identified in any of the studies evaluated. Recurrent restenosis after intervention for ISR occurred in 12 of 84 cases (14%). All 12 patients received tertiary treatment. Two patients developed a third recurrence and eventually disabling stroke, one of whom died. In the other 10 interventions, no further follow-up was described. In conclusion, several treatment strategies for ISR after CAS placement have been reported, with acceptable short-term results. The quality of the currently available data is still limited by the variability of results and study designs. Therefore, no recommendation can be made for any specific therapy. This argues for better study design and more consistency of reporting standards.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angioplasty / statistics & numerical data*
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / surgery*
  • Endarterectomy, Carotid / statistics & numerical data*
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / epidemiology*
  • Graft Occlusion, Vascular / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Reoperation / statistics & numerical data
  • Stents*
  • Treatment Outcome