Major depressive disorder is a prevalent recurrent medical syndrome associated with inter-episodic dysfunction. The metabolic syndrome is comprised of several established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (i.e. abdominal obesity, dyslipidaemia, dysglycaemia and hypertension). The criterion items of the metabolic syndrome collectively represent a multi-dimensional risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Extant evidence indicates that both major depressive disorder and the metabolic syndrome, albeit distinct, often co-occur and are possibly subserved by overlapping pathophysiology and causative mechanisms. Conventional antidepressants exert variable effects on constituent elements of the metabolic syndrome, inviting the need for careful consideration prior to treatment selection and sequencing. Initiating and maintaining antidepressant therapy should include routine surveillance for clinical and/or biochemical evidence suggestive of the metabolic syndrome.