Objective: To compare analgesic effects of tramadol, codeine, and ketoprofen administered alone and in combination and their effects on concentrations of blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum interleukin (IL)-6 in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy.
Animals: 42 dogs with oral neoplasms.
Procedures: 30 minutes before the end of surgery, dogs received SC injections of tramadol (2 mg/kg), codeine (2 mg/kg), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg), tramadol+ketoprofen, or codeine+ketoprofen (at the aforementioned dosages). Physiologic variables, analgesia, and sedation were measured before (baseline) and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 24 hours after surgery. Blood glucose, serum cortisol, and serum IL-6 concentrations were measured 1, 3, 5, and 24 hours after administration of analgesics.
Results: All treatments provided adequate postoperative analgesia. Significant increases in mean+/-SD blood glucose concentrations were detected in dogs receiving tramadol (96+/-14 mg/dL), codeine (120+/-66 mg/dL and 96+/-21 mg/dL), ketoprofen (105+/-22 mg/dL), and codeine+ketoprofen (104+/-16 mg/dL) at 5, 1 and 3, 5, and 3 hours after analgesic administration, respectively, compared with preoperative (baseline) values. There were no significant changes in physiologic variables, serum IL-6 concentrations, or serum cortisol concentrations. Dogs administered codeine+ketoprofen had light but significant sedation at 4, 5, and 24 hours.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Opioids alone or in combination with an NSAID promoted analgesia without adverse effects during the 24-hour postoperative period in dogs undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy for removal of oral neoplasms.