Landfills are large sources of CH(4), but a considerable amount of CH(4) can be removed in situ by methanotrophs if their activity can be stimulated through the addition of nitrogen. Nitrogen can, however, lead to increased N(2)O production. To examine the effects of nitrogen and a selective inhibitor on CH(4) oxidation and N(2)O production in situ, 0.5 M of NH(4)Cl and 0.25 M of KNO(3), with and without 0.01% (w/v) phenylacetylene, were applied to test plots at a landfill in Kalamazoo, MI from 2007 November to 2009 July. Nitrogen amendments stimulated N(2)O production but had no effect on CH(4) oxidation. The addition of phenylacetylene stimulated CH(4) oxidation while reducing N(2)O production. Methanotrophs possessing particulate methane monooxygenase and archaeal ammonia-oxidizers (AOAs) were abundant. The addition of nitrogen reduced methanotrophic diversity, particularly for type I methanotrophs. The simultaneous addition of phenylacetylene increased methanotrophic diversity and the presence of type I methanotrophs. Clone libraries of the archaeal amoA gene showed that the addition of nitrogen increased AOAs affiliated with Crenarchaeal group 1.1b, while they decreased with the simultaneous addition of phenylacetylene. These results suggest that the addition of phenylacetylene with nitrogen reduces N(2)O production by selectively inhibiting AOAs and/or type II methanotrophs.