Background: A previous study reported by this group found that patients in periodontal maintenance programs taking vitamin D and calcium supplementation had a trend for better periodontal health compared to patients not taking supplementation. The objective of the present study is to determine, for the same cohort of subjects, whether such differences persist over a 1-year period.
Methods: Fifty-one patients enrolled in maintenance programs from two dental clinics were recruited. Of these, 23 were taking vitamin D (≥400 IU/day) and calcium (≥1,000 mg/day) supplementation, and 28 were not. All subjects had at least two interproximal sites with ≥3 mm clinical attachment loss. For mandibular-posterior teeth, gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, attachment loss, bleeding on probing, calculus index, and furcation involvement were evaluated. Photostimulable-phosphor, posterior bitewing radiographs were taken to assess alveolar bone. Daily vitamin D and calcium intakes were estimated by nutritional analysis. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.
Results: Total daily calcium and vitamin D intakes were 1,769 mg (95% confidence interval, 1,606 to 1,933) and 1,049 IU (781 to 1,317) in the taker group, and 642 mg (505 to 779) and 156 IU (117 to 195) in the non-taker group, respectively (P <0.001 for both). Clinical parameters of periodontal health improved with time in both groups (P <0.001). When clinical measures were considered collectively, the differences between supplement takers and non-takers had the following P values: baseline (P = 0.061); 6 months (P = 0.049); and 12 months (P = 0.114). After adjusting for covariates, the P values for the effect of supplementation were as follows: baseline (P = 0.028); 6 months (P = 0.034); and 12 months (P = 0.058).
Conclusions: Calcium and vitamin D supplementation (≤1,000 IU/day) had a modest positive effect on periodontal health, and consistent dental care improved clinical parameters of periodontal disease regardless of such supplements. Our findings support the possibility that vitamin D may positively impact periodontal health and confirm the need for randomized clinical trials on the effects of vitamin D on periodontitis.