Paracrine interaction between adipose-derived stromal cells and cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010 Sep;126(3):806-821. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181e5f81a.


Background: Adipose-derived stromal cells are a potential cell source for the successful healing of skeletal defects. In this study, the authors sought to investigate the potential for cranial suture-derived mesenchymal cells to promote the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells. Various reports have previously examined the unique in vitro attributes of suture-derived mesenchymal cells; this study sought to extend those findings.

Methods: Suture-derived mesenchymal cells were isolated from wild-type mice (n = 30) from both fusing posterofrontal and patent sagittal sutures. Cells were placed in Transwell inserts with human adipose-derived stromal cells (n = 5 patients) with osteogenic differentiation medium with or without recombinant Noggin (10 to 400 ng/ml). Specific gene expression of osteogenic markers and Hedgehog pathway were assayed; standard osteogenic assays (alkaline phosphatase and alizarin red staining) were performed. All assays were performed in triplicate.

Results: Both posterofrontal and sagittal suture-derived mesenchymal cells induced osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells (p < 0.05). Posterofrontal suture-derived mesenchymal cells induced adipose-derived stromal cell osteogenesis to a greater degree than sagittal suture-derived mesenchymal cells (p < 0.05). This was accompanied by an increase in bone morphogenetic protein expression (p < 0.05). Finally, recombinant Noggin mitigated the pro-osteogenic effects of co-culture accompanied by a reduction in Hedgehog signaling (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Suture-derived mesenchymal cells secrete paracrine factors that induce osteogenic differentiation of multipotent stromal cells (human adipose-derived stromal cells). Cells derived from the fusing posterofrontal suture do this to a significantly greater degree than cells from the patent sagittal suture. Enhanced bone morphogenetic protein and Hedgehog signaling may underlie this paracrine effect.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adipose Tissue / cytology*
  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation*
  • Humans
  • Mesoderm / cytology*
  • Mice
  • Osteogenesis*
  • Paracrine Communication*
  • Skull / cytology
  • Stromal Cells / cytology*
  • Sutures