This paper aimed at investigating the expression and methylation profiles of SOX2, a gene coding for the stem cell-related transcription factor SOX2, in endometrial carcinomas. By methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR), the methylation status of SOX2 promoter region in 72 endometrial carcinomas and 12 normal endometrial samples was examined. Methylated allele was found in 37.5% (27/72) of endometrial carcinomas but only in 8.3% (1/12) of normal endometrial, significantly more frequent in cancers (P = .0472). SOX2 mRNA level was significantly reduced in endometrial carcinoma compared with nonneoplastic endometrium (P = .045). A significant correlation between SOX2 mRNA expression and hypermethylation of SOX2 was found (P = .024). Hypermethylation of SOX2 tended to be more frequently found in type II serous or clear cell adenocarcinoma. SOX2 methylation was also significantly correlated with shorter survival of patients (P = .046). In conclusion, epigenetic mechanisms may play a crucial role on the transcriptional regulation of SOX2 and loss of SOX2 expression may be related to endometrial carcinogenesis.