Introduction: The measurement of adherence to nutrition therapy is essential to evaluate if the outcomes are related to given recommendations.
Material and methods: The aim of this study was to describe adherence to a Medical Nutrition Therapy Program in Mexican pregnant women with diabetes, using three different methods; and evaluate its association with glycemic control. Adherence was measured with a questionnaire (0-100%), women's self-perception (0-100%) and energy intake adequacy by multiple pass 24 hour recall (85-115% of recommendation). Women were randomly assigned to two different dietary strategies. Glycemic control was determined by capillary glucose self-monitoring.
Results: Women analyzed in this study (n=69) had an age range of 22-42 years; 47.8% had type 2 diabetes (DM2) and 52.2% had gestational diabetes (GDM). Energy intake adequacy was higher in women with GDM (41.9% vs. 37.7%, p = 0.001). Average adherence measured with the questionnaire was 55%; no differences were found by type of diabetes. Self-perception was higher in women with DM2 (84%) when compared to women with GDM (70%) (p = 0.039). No differences were found in the three methods by study group. Optimal glycemic control was observed in 50% of women; no association was found with adherence measured with any of the three methods studied.
Conclusions: The observed differences in adherences suggest that it may be recommendable to combine different measurement methods and include social and psychological factors that affect behavioral change.