This review provides a complete technical description of the CyberKnife VSI System, the latest addition to the CyberKnife product family, which was released in September 2009. This review updates the previous technical reviews of the original system version published in the late 1990s. Technical developments over the last decade have impacted virtually every aspect of the CyberKnife System. These developments have increased the geometric accuracy of the system and have enhanced the dosimetric accuracy and quality of treatment, with advanced inverse treatment planning algorithms, rapid Monte Carlo dose calculation, and post-processing tools that allow trade-offs between treatment efficiency and dosimetric quality to be explored. This review provides a system overview with detailed descriptions of key subsystems. A detailed review of studies of geometric accuracy is also included, reporting a wide range of experiments involving phantom tests and patient data. Finally, the relationship between technical developments and the greatly increased range of clinical applications they have allowed is reviewed briefly.