Observational studies strongly associate vitamin D deficiency with a variety of cardiovascular diseases beyond defects in bone and calcium metabolism. Vitamin D has multiple mechanisms that potentially may affect cardiovascular health. Because vitamin D deficiency is common, therapies directed at the replacement of vitamin D may be beneficial. To date however, studies evaluating vitamin D supplementation are few and have not consistently shown benefit. It is possible that the lack of benefit in these studies may have arisen from suboptimal levels of vitamin D supplementation or other unknown factors. Nevertheless, the growing body of observational data and consistent findings of relatively high rates of low vitamin D serum levels warrant further well-designed studies to investigate the relation between vitamin D and cardiovascular health. In conclusion, vitamin D is now recognized as important for cardiovascular health and its deficiency as a potential risk factor for several cardiovascular disease processes.
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