Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most frequent intensive-care-unit (ICU)-acquired infection, with an incidence ranging from 6 to 52% [1,2,3,4]. Several studies have shown that critically ill patients are at high risk for getting such nosocomial infections [3,4]. VAP continues to be a major cause of morbidity, mortality and increased financial burden in ICUs [5,6,7,8]. Over the years there has been a significant advance in our understanding of ventilator associated pneumonia. This article reviews the various aspects of VAP such as definition, risk factors, etiological agents, diagnosis, treatment and prevention with emphasis on the recent advances.
Copyright (c) 2010 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.