Exome sequencing identifies WDR35 variants involved in Sensenbrenner syndrome

Am J Hum Genet. 2010 Sep 10;87(3):418-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.08.004.


Sensenbrenner syndrome/cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is an autosomal-recessive disease that is characterized by craniosynostosis and ectodermal and skeletal abnormalities. We sequenced the exomes of two unrelated CED patients and identified compound heterozygous mutations in WDR35 as the cause of the disease in each of the two patients independently, showing that it is possible to find the causative gene by sequencing the exome of a single sporadic patient. With RT-PCR, we demonstrate that a splice-site mutation in exon 2 of WDR35 alters splicing of RNA on the affected allele, introducing a premature stop codon. WDR35 is homologous to TULP4 (from the Tubby superfamily) and has previously been characterized as an intraflagellar transport component, confirming that Sensenbrenner syndrome is a ciliary disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Child
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Ectodermal Dysplasia / genetics*
  • Exons / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • RNA Splice Sites / genetics
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA / methods*
  • Syndrome


  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • RNA Splice Sites
  • naofen protein, human