To function optimally as vaccines, dendritic cells (DCs) must actively migrate to lymphoid organs and maintain a viable, mature state for sufficient time to effectively present their Ag to cognate T cells. Unfortunately, mature DCs rapidly lose viability and function after injection, and only a minority leaves the vaccine site and migrates to lymph nodes. We show that all of these functions can be enhanced in DCs by removal of IL-1R-associated kinase M (IRAK-M). We found that IRAK-M is induced in DCs by TLR ligation and that its absence from these cells leads to increased activation of the p38-MAPK and NF-κB pathways, which, in turn, improves DC migration to lymph nodes, increases their longevity, and augments their secretion of Th1-skewing cytokines and chemokines. These biological effects have immunological consequences. IRAK-M(-/-) DCs increase the proliferation and activation of Ag-specific T cells, and a single vaccination with Ag-pulsed, LPS-matured IRAK-M(-/-) DCs eliminates established tumors and prolongs the survival of EG7 or B16.f10 tumor-bearing mice, without discernible induction of autoimmune disease. Thus, manipulation of IRAK-M levels can increase the potency of DC vaccines by enhancing their Ag-presenting function, migration, and longevity.