Rhinitis associated with pesticide use among private pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study

J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73(20):1382-93. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2010.497443.

Abstract

Farmers commonly experience rhinitis but the risk factors are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to analyze cross-sectional data on rhinitis in the past year and pesticide use from 21,958 Iowa and North Carolina farmers in the Agricultural Health Study, enrolled 1993-1997, to evaluate pesticide predictors of rhinitis. Polytomous and logistic regression models were used to assess association between pesticide use and rhinitis while controlling for demographics and farm-related exposures. Sixty-seven percent of farmers reported current rhinitis and 39% reported 3 or more rhinitis episodes. The herbicides glyphosate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.05-1.13] and petroleum oil (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.05-1.19) were associated with current rhinitis and increased rhinitis episodes. Of the insecticides, four organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, and malathion), carbaryl, and use of permethrin on animals were predictors of current rhinitis. Diazinon was significant in the overall polytomous model and was associated with an elevated OR of 13+ rhinitis episodes (13+ episodes OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.09-1.38). The fungicide captan was also a significant predictor of rhinitis. Use of petroleum oil, use of malathion, use of permethrin, and use of the herbicide metolachlor were significant in exposure-response polytomous models. Specific pesticides may contribute to rhinitis in farmers; agricultural activities did not explain these findings.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Acetamides
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / chemically induced*
  • Agricultural Workers' Diseases / epidemiology
  • Animals
  • Captan
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diazinon
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Iowa / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • North Carolina / epidemiology
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Pesticides / adverse effects*
  • Pesticides / classification
  • Petroleum
  • Rhinitis / chemically induced*
  • Rhinitis / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult

Substances

  • Acetamides
  • Pesticides
  • Petroleum
  • Captan
  • metolachlor
  • Diazinon