Increased risk of suicidal ideation in smokers and former smokers compared to never smokers: evidence from the Baltimore ECA follow-up study

Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2010 Aug;40(4):307-18. doi: 10.1521/suli.2010.40.4.307.


The incidence rate of suicidal ideation among current and former smokers versus never smokers is not known. In this study, the age-adjusted incidence of suicidal ideation was highest among current smokers, followed by former, then never smokers. The adjusted hazard for suicide ideation was 2.22 (95%CI = 1.48, 3.33) and 1.19 (95%CI = 0.78, 1.82) for current and former smokers, respectively, compared to never smokers. Results indicate that current smokers have increased risks of suicidal ideation above and beyond the risk for never and former smokers regardless of age, gender, history of depressive disorder or anxiety symptoms, and alcohol abuse/dependence. Smoking cessation might be beneficial for some suicide prevention efforts.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Baltimore / epidemiology
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Risk Assessment*
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Suicidal Ideation*
  • Young Adult