Aim: Phase I study of seliciclib (CYC202, R-roscovitine), an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases 2, 7 and 9, causing cell cycle changes and apoptosis in cancer cells.
Patients and methods: This phase I trial aimed at defining the toxicity profile, the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), the recommended phase II dose (RD) and the main pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of oral seliciclib. Three schedules were evaluated: seliciclib given twice daily for 5 consecutive days every 3 weeks (schedule A), for 10 consecutive days followed by 2 weeks off (schedule B) and for 3d every 2 weeks (schedule C).
Results: Fifty-six patients received a total of 218 cycles of seliciclib. Dose-Limiting Toxicities (DLT) consisting of nausea, vomiting, asthenia and hypokalaemia occurred at 1600 mg bid for schedule A and in schedule C, DLT of hypokalaemia and asthenia occurred at 1800 mg bid. The evaluation of longer treatment duration in schedule B was discontinued because of unacceptable toxicity at lower doses. Other adverse events included transient serum creatinine increases and liver dysfunctions. Pharmacokinetic data showed that exposure to seliciclib and its carboxylate metabolite increased with increasing dose. Soluble cytokeratin 18 fragments allowed monitoring of seliciclib-induced cell death in the blood of patients treated with seliciclib at doses above 800 mg/d. One partial response in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma and sustained tumour stabilisations were observed.
Conclusions: The MTD and RD for seliciclib are 1250 mg bid for 5d every 3 weeks and 1600 mg bid for 3d every 2 weeks, respectively.
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