The plasma N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) concentration is measured for determining the diagnosis and severity of heart failure in dogs. However, it is still unclear whether measurements of circulating NT-proBNP levels provide clinical utility as an indicator of therapeutic efficacy. Thus, we investigated the surgical correction-related changes of plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in 9 dogs with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were conducted both before and after surgery. Similarly, the plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were determined using an enzyme immunoassay for canine pro-BNP. The International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) class and murmur grade were significantly improved after surgery compared with before surgery. Vertebral heart size (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) were significantly decreased after surgery. Fractional shortening was significantly decreased and relative wall thickness (RWT) was significantly increased after surgery. Furthermore, the plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were significantly decreased by surgical correction. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration showed significant positive correlation with the ISACHC class, murmur grade, VHS and CTR and significant negative correlation with the RWT. Therefore, measurement of plasma NT-proBNP levels can be used to monitor the effectiveness of therapies such as surgical correction of PDA.