Baseline CBF, and BOLD, CBF, and CMRO2 fMRI of visual and vibrotactile stimulations in baboons

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011 Feb;31(2):715-24. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2010.154. Epub 2010 Sep 8.


Neurovascular coupling associated with visual and vibrotactile stimulations in baboons anesthetized sequentially with isoflurane and ketamine was evaluated using multimodal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on a clinical 3-Tesla scanner. Basal cerebral blood flow (CBF), and combined blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) and CBF fMRI of visual and somatosensory stimulations were measured using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling. Changes in stimulus-evoked cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) were estimated using calibrated fMRI. Arterial transit time for vessel, gray matter (GM), and white matter (WM) were 250, 570, and 823 ms, respectively. Gray matter and WM CBF, respectively, were 107.8±7.9 and 47.8±3.8 mL per 100 g per minute under isoflurane, and 108.8±10.3 and 48.7±4.2 mL per 100 g per minute under ketamine (mean±s.e.m., N=8 sessions, five baboons). The GM/WM CBF ratio was not statistically different between the two anesthetics, averaging 2.3±0.1. Hypercapnia evoked global BOLD and CBF increases. Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent, CBF, and CMRO(2) signal changes by visual and vibrotactile stimulations were 0.19% to 0.22%, 18% to 23%, and 4.9% to 6.7%, respectively. The CBF/CMRO(2) ratio was 2.9 to 4.7. Basal CBF and fMRI responses were not statistically different between the two anesthetics. This study establishes a multimodal fMRI protocol to probe clinically relevant functional, physiological and metabolic information in large nonhuman primates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Anesthesia
  • Anesthetics, Dissociative
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Animals
  • Brain / pathology
  • Calibration
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology*
  • Female
  • Hypercapnia / physiopathology
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Isoflurane
  • Ketamine
  • Kinetics
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Oxygen / blood*
  • Oxygen Consumption / physiology*
  • Papio
  • Perfusion Imaging
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Physical Stimulation
  • Spin Labels
  • Touch / physiology
  • Vibration


  • Anesthetics, Dissociative
  • Anesthetics, Inhalation
  • Spin Labels
  • Ketamine
  • Isoflurane
  • Oxygen