Intranasal administration of adjuvant-combined vaccine protects monkeys from challenge with the highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 virus

J Med Virol. 2010 Oct;82(10):1754-61. doi: 10.1002/jmv.21824.


The effectiveness in cynomolgus macaques of intranasal administration of an influenza A H5N1 pre-pandemic vaccine combined with synthetic double-stranded RNA (polyI/polyC12U) as an adjuvant was examined. The monkeys were immunized with the adjuvant-combined vaccine on weeks 0, 3, and 5, and challenged with the homologous virus 2 weeks after the third immunization. After the second immunization, the immunization induced vaccine-specific salivary IgA and serum IgG antibodies, as detected by ELISA. The serum IgG antibodies present 2 weeks after the third immunization not only had high neutralizing activity against the homologous virus, they also neutralized significantly heterologous influenza A H5N1 viruses. The vaccinated animals were protected completely from the challenge infection with the homologous virus. These results suggest that intranasal immunization with the Double stranded RNA-combined influenza A H5N1 vaccine induce mucosal IgA and serum IgG antibodies which could protect humans from homologous influenza A H5N1 viruses which have a pandemic potential.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / analysis
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / analysis
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Immunization, Secondary / methods
  • Immunoglobulin A / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin G / blood
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / immunology*
  • Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype / pathogenicity
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology
  • RNA, Double-Stranded / administration & dosage
  • Saliva / immunology
  • Vaccination / methods


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Neutralizing
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • RNA, Double-Stranded