A subset of endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix exhibit a gastric phenotype and morphology, as reported in cases of minimal deviation AC in which the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been rarely detected. To investigate the HPV-independent pathway of carcinogenesis in cases of gastric-type AC, we investigated the common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) status in 52 nonsquamous cell carcinomas, using a PCR-based typing method and immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is overexpressed in both cancerous and precancerous cervical tissue, making it an ideal biomarker for cervical cancer cases). Using novel morphological criteria, seven of 52 (13.5%) carcinomas were designated as gastric-type ACs, all of which were negative for both hr-HPV DNA and p16INK4a. Nongastric-type ACs were frequently positive for both hr-HPV DNA (90%, 28/31) and p16INK4a (94%, 29/31) with adenosquamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrating the presence of hr-HPV DNA in 86% (6/7) and 83% (5/6) of cases, respectively. In these two types of carcinoma, 86% (6/7) and 100% (6/6) were positive for p16INK4a, respectively. Our data suggests that gastric-type AC appears to represent an oncogenic hr-HPV-independent neoplasm and therefore is a potential pitfall of HPV DNA testing and vaccination.