Purpose: To assess the usefulness of ordinal scoring of the visual assessment of coronary artery calcification (CAC) on low-dose computed tomographic (CT) scans of the chest in the prediction of cardiovascular death.
Materials and methods: All participants consented to low-dose CT screening according to an institutional review board-approved protocol. The amount of CAC was assessed on ungated low-dose CT scans of the chest obtained between June 2000 and December 2005 in a cohort of 8782 smokers aged 40-85 years. The four main coronary arteries were visually scored, and each participant received a CAC score of 0-12. The date and cause of death was obtained by using the National Death Index. Follow-up time (median, 72.3 months; range, 0.3-91.9 months) was calculated as the time between CT and death, loss to follow-up, or December 31, 2007, whichever came first. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk of mortality according to CAC category adjusted for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking, and sex. The same analysis to determine the hazard ratio for survival from cardiac death was performed by using Cox regression analysis.
Results: The rate of cardiovascular deaths increased with an increasing CAC score and was 1.2% (43 of 3573 subjects) for a score of 0, 1.8% (66 of 3569 subjects) for a score of 1-3, 5.0% (51 of 1015 subjects) for a score of 4-6, and 5.3% (33 of 625 subjects) for a score of 7-12. With use of subjects with a CAC score of 0 as the reference group, a CAC score of at least 4 was a significant predictor of cardiovascular death (odds ratio [OR], 4.7; 95% confidence interval: 3.3, 6.8; P < .0001); when adjusted for sex, age, and pack-years of smoking, the CAC score remained significant (OR, 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 3.1; P = .0002).
Conclusion: Visual assessment of CAC on low-dose CT scans provides clinically relevant quantitative information as to cardiovascular death.
© RSNA, 2010.