Neutron fluence in antiproton radiotherapy, measurements and simulations

Acta Oncol. 2010 Oct;49(7):1149-59. doi: 10.3109/0284186X.2010.501812.


Introduction: A significant part of the secondary particle spectrum from antiproton annihilation consists of fast neutrons, which may contribute to a significant dose background found outside the primary beam.

Materials and methods: Using a polystyrene phantom as a moderator, we have performed absolute fluence measurements of the thermalized part of the fast neutron spectrum using Lithium-6 and -7 Fluoride TLD pairs. The results were compared with the Monte Carlo particle transport code FLUKA.

Results: The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with simulations. The thermal neutron kerma resulting from the measured thermal neutron fluence is insignificant compared to the contribution from fast neutrons.

Discussion: The secondary neutron fluences encountered in antiproton therapy are found to be similar to values calculated for pion treatment, however exact modeling under more realistic treatment scenarios is still required to quantitatively compare these treatment modalities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Computer Simulation*
  • Fast Neutrons* / therapeutic use
  • Fluorides / analysis
  • Fluorides / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Lithium / analysis
  • Lithium / chemistry
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Motion*
  • Nuclear Reactors / instrumentation
  • Phantoms, Imaging
  • Protons
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Radiotherapy, Conformal / instrumentation
  • Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods*
  • Thermoluminescent Dosimetry / instrumentation
  • Thermoluminescent Dosimetry / methods


  • Protons
  • Lithium
  • Fluorides