To investigate whether proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) negatively affect clinical outcome in patients treated with clopidogrel. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Outcomes evaluated were combined major adverse cardiac events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis, death and gastrointestinal bleeding. Studies included were randomized trials or post-hoc analyzes of randomized trials and observational studies reporting adjusted effect estimates. Twenty five studies met the selection criteria and included 159 138 patients. Administration of PPIs together with clopidogrel corresponded to a 29% increased risk of combined major cardiovascular events [risk ratio (RR) = 1.29, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.15-1.45] and a 31% increased risk of MI (RR = 1.31, 95%CI = 1.12-1.53). In contrast, PPI use did not negatively influence the mortality (RR = 1.04, 95%CI = 0.93-1.16), whereas the risk of developing a gastrointestinal bleed under PPI treatment decreased by 50% (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.37-0.69). The presence of significant heterogeneity might indicate that the evidence is biased, confounded or inconsistent. The sensitivity analysis, however, yielded that the direction of the effect remained unchanged irrespective of the publication type, study quality, study size or risk of developing an event. Two studies indicate that PPIs have a negative effect irrespective of clopidogrel exposure. In conclusion, concomitant PPI use might be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events but does not influence the risk of death. Prospective randomized trials are required to investigate whether a cause-and-effect relationship truly exists and to explore whether different PPIs worsen clinical outcome in clopidogrel treated patients as the PPI-clopidogrel drug-drug interaction does not seem to be a class effect.
© 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.