Onset of autoimmune type 1 diabetes during pregnancy: Prevalence and outcomes

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Aug;24(4):617-24. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.06.002.


Although this has been recently challenged, gestational diabetes mellitus (gestational diabetes) is still defined as an "impairment of glucose tolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy". According to this definition, all pathophysiological conditions leading to beta cell deficiency may reveal as gestational diabetes, due to the physiological insulin resistance associated with pregnancy. In rare patients, gestational diabetes is associated with the presence of islet autoantibodies and with a high risk of progression to overt type 1 diabetes after delivery. This condition has often been compared to the Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults. The frequency of islet autoantibodies in gestational diabetes has been assessed in many studies, but data about the clinical presentation of this subtype and about its prognosis are few. We review these studies and discuss the links of autoimmune gestational diabetes with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Autoantibodies / analysis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism
  • Diabetes, Gestational / immunology*
  • Disease Progression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Islets of Langerhans / immunology
  • Phenotype
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis


  • Autoantibodies