The eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale MMAS: translation and validation of the Malaysian version

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Nov;90(2):216-21. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2010.08.012. Epub 2010 Sep 15.


Aims: To translate and examine the psychometric properties of the Malaysian version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS) among patients with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate MMAS into Malay language. It was later validated on a convenience sample of 223 type 2 diabetes outpatients between May and September 2009. Reliability was tested for internal consistency. Validity was confirmed using convergent and known group validity.

Results: Employing the recommended scoring method, the mean±SD of MMAS scores was 6.13±1.72. Moderate internal consistency was found (Cronbach's α=0.675), the test-retest reliability value was 0.816 (p<0.001). A positive correlation between the eight- and four-item MMAS was found (r=0.792; p<0.01). A significant relationship between MMAS categories and HbA1c categories (χ(2)=20.261; p≥0.001) was found. The MMAS sensitivity and specificity, with positive and negative predictive values were 77.61%, 45.37%, 46.84% and 76.56%, respectively.

Conclusions: The findings of this validation study indicate that the Malaysian version of the MMAS is a reliable and valid measure of medication adherence which can now be used.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Delivery of Health Care
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / psychology
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Language
  • Malaysia
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence*
  • Middle Aged
  • Racial Groups
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents