Functional characterization of a protein is often facilitated by its 3D structure. However, the fraction of experimentally known 3D models is currently less than 1% due to the inherently time-consuming and complicated nature of structure determination techniques. Computational approaches are employed to bridge the gap between the number of known sequences and that of 3D models. Template-based protein structure modeling techniques rely on the study of principles that dictate the 3D structure of natural proteins from the theory of evolution viewpoint. Strategies for template-based structure modeling will be discussed with a focus on comparative modeling, by reviewing techniques available for all the major steps involved in the comparative modeling pipeline.