High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a master regulator of innate immunity

Cell Tissue Res. 2011 Jan;343(1):189-99. doi: 10.1007/s00441-010-1033-1. Epub 2010 Sep 11.


Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) comprise intracellular molecules characterized by the ability to reach the extracellular environment, where they prompt inflammation and tissue repair. The high-mobility box group 1 (HMGB1) protein is a prototypic DAMP and is highly conserved in evolution. HMGB1 is released upon cell and tissue necrosis and is actively produced by immune cells. Evidence suggests that HMGB1 acts as a key molecule of innate immunity, downstream of persistent tissue injury, orchestrating inflammation, stem cell recruitment/activation, and eventual tissue remodeling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • HMGB1 Protein / chemistry
  • HMGB1 Protein / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Protein Binding


  • HMGB1 Protein