Aim: Accelerated atherosclerosis is a characteristic feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD). CD36 is a scavenger receptor which contributes to foam cell formation, an early crucial step in atherosclerosis development. Recently, a soluble form of CD36 (sCD36) has been discovered. The aim of the study was to develop an ELISA method for quantitative sCD36 evaluation and to measure it in a cohort of CKD stage 5 patients.
Method: A novel monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for sCD36 evaluation was developed and verified by repeated optimization procedures. Serum concentration of sCD36 was then analyzed in a cohort of 228 CKD stage 5 patients prior to dialysis initiation. Additionally, samples from a control group of 73 healthy, age and gender-matched subjects were evaluated.
Results: The novel CD36 ELISA assay had a recovery of at least 90%, and intra- and inter-assay variability of 6 and 11%, respectively. Concentration of serum sCD36 in CKD patients was significantly increased as compared to controls, and associated with the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients above the 75th percentile of sCD36 concentration were at increased risk of 3-year cardiovascular mortality, as compared to the rest of the cohort [HR 2.85 (1.09-7.59) p=0.03].
Conclusion: For the first time, sCD36 was assessed quantitatively in a group of patients and showed associations with DM, CKD, and statin use. Furthermore, the concentration of sCD36 predicted cardiovascular mortality in CKD stage 5 patients.
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