We evaluated the safety and clinical outcome of autologous nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe Crohn disease (CD) defined as a Crohn Disease Activity Index (CDAI) greater than 250, and/or Crohn Severity Index greater than 16 despite anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. Stem cells were mobilized from the peripheral blood using cyclophosphamide (2.0 g/m(2)) and G-CSF (10 μg/kg/day), enriched ex vivo by CD34(+) selection, and reinfused after immune suppressive conditioning with cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) and either equine antithymocyte globulin (ATG, 90 mg/kg) or rabbit ATG (6 mg/kg). Eighteen of 24 patients are 5 or more years after transplantation. All patients went into remission with a CDAI less than 150. The percentage of clinical relapse-free survival defined as the percent free of restarting CD medical therapy after transplantation is 91% at 1 year, 63% at 2 years, 57% at 3 years, 39% at 4 years, and 19% at 5 years. The percentage of patients in remission (CDAI < 150), steroid-free, or medication-free at any posttransplantation evaluation interval more than 5 years after transplantation has remained at or greater than 70%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT0027853.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00278538.