A conceptual model for culturally appropriate health education programs in developing countries

Int Q Community Health Educ. 1990 Jan 1;11(1):53-62. doi: 10.2190/LPKH-PMPJ-DBW9-FP6X.


Increasing numbers of health educators in industrial nations are showing interest in and developing health education programs for developing nations. Cultural sensitivity and appropriateness, or the lack thereof, are often cited as significant factors in program successes or failures. In this article, a conceptual model (The PEN-3 Model) that focuses on cultural appropriateness in the development of health education programs in developing countries is presented. Health educators are encouraged to use this model to ensure empowerment through promotion of positive behaviors, and to recognize and appreciate unfamiliar behaviors while attempting to modify negative behaviors.