This study evaluated the impact of renal function on cardiovascular outcomes in elderly hypertensive patients enrolled in the Japanese Trial to Assess Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure in Elderly Hypertensive patients. The patients were randomly assigned to either a strict-treatment group (target systolic blood pressure (BP) <140 mm Hg, n=2212) or a mild-treatment group (target systolic BP, 140 to <160 mm Hg, n=2206), each with efonidipine (a T/L-type Ca channel blocker)-based regimens. Cardiovascular events (stroke, cardiovascular disease and renal disease) were evaluated during the 2-year follow-up period following the prospective randomized open-blinded end-point method. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was elevated throughout the trial period in both the strict-treatment (59.4-62 ml min⁻¹ per 1.73 m²) and the mild-treatment group (58.8-61.4 ml min⁻¹ per 1.73 m²). This tendency was also observed in diabetic patients and patients aged ≥75 years, with baseline eGFR<60 ml min⁻¹ per 1.73 m². Baseline eGFR (<60 vs. ≥60 ml min⁻¹ per 1.73 m²) had no definite relationship with the incidence of cardiovascular events, nor did the level of BP control. Proteinuria at the time of entry into the study, however, was significantly correlated with cardiovascular event rates (7.1%), an association that was more apparent in patients with eGFR<60 ml min⁻¹ per 1.73 m² (8.2%). Furthermore, the event rate was more elevated in patients with greater declines in eGFR and was amplified when the baseline eGFR was <60 ml min⁻¹ per 1.73 m². In conclusion, the rates of decline of renal function and proteinuria constitute critical risk factors for cardiovascular events in elderly hypertensive patients, trends that are enhanced when baseline eGFR is diminished. Furthermore, the fact that efonidipine-based regimens ameliorate renal function in elderly hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease may offer novel information on the mechanisms of cardiovascular protection.