Whole-genome sequencing and gene mapping of a newly isolated lytic enterococcal bacteriophage EFRM31

Arch Virol. 2010 Nov;155(11):1887-91. doi: 10.1007/s00705-010-0800-3. Epub 2010 Sep 16.


Bacteriophages contribute greatly to bacterial evolution. There has been limited investigation of enterococcal bacteriophages, and only two enterococcal bacteriophages have been sequenced completely. In this study, a novel enterococcal bacteriophage, EFRM31, was isolated from a piggery effluent sample and then characterized. The complete bacteriophage genome was determined by shotgun sequencing. EFRM31 belongs to the family Siphoviridae (order Caudovirales) and has a circular double-stranded DNA genome. The putative EFRM31 genome consists of 16945 nucleotides with a low GC content (34.5%) and does not contain CpG islands. The EFRM31 genome contains 82 putative open reading frames, including 17 with identities to genes required for the assembly of a head-tail bacteriophage and 6 hypothetical proteins of unknown function. In general, the sequencing results from EFRM31 revealed considerable similarity to another enterococcal bacteriophage, EFAP-1. This identity and the order of shared genes suggest a close relationship or a common ancestor for these two bacteriophages.

MeSH terms

  • Enterococcus / virology*
  • Genome, Viral*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Siphoviridae / classification*
  • Siphoviridae / genetics*

Associated data

  • GENBANK/GU815339