Differential expression of DKK-1 binding receptors on stromal cells and myeloma cells results in their distinct response to secreted DKK-1 in myeloma

Mol Cancer. 2010 Sep 16;9:247. doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-247.

Abstract

Background: The canonical Wnt signaling is concurrently important for osteoblast differentiation and myeloma cell proliferation. Its activation in myeloma cells and its inhibition in osteoblasts and their progenitors have been identified in the previous studies. Osteoblast progenitors and myeloma cells from a myeloma patient share the same bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, but respond differently to DKK-1 secreted by myeloma cells. The mechanisms remain unclear.

Methods: Primary multiple myeloma (MM) cells were isolated from BM mononuclear cells of 12 MM patients. Human bone marrow stromal cells (SCs) were obtained from BM adherent cells of these MM patients and 10 healthy donors. The mRNA expression levels of DKK-1 binding receptor LRP5/6 and Kremen1/2 (Krm1/2) were analyzed by Real-time PCR in human myeloma cell line (HMCL) RPMI-8226, NCI-H929, U266, LP-1, CZ-1, KM-3, Sko-007, primary myeloma cells and SCs from 12 MM patients and SCs from 10 healthy donors. The binding capability of DKK-1 binding receptors to DKK-1 on primary myeloma cells and SCs was detected by flow cytometry assay.

Results: The mRNA expression levels of DKK-1 binding receptor LRP5/6 and Krm1/2 in SCs from patients with MM were significantly higher than those in myeloma cells and in SCs from healthy donors. The binding capability to DKK-1of DKK-1 binding receptors on SCs from MM patients was obviously higher than those on myeloma cells and SCs from healthy donors by flow cytometry assay. Similar to the effects of coculture with rhDKK1, coculture of SCs from healthy donors with myeloma cells in the presence or absence of a Transwell insert did up-regulate SCs' mRNA levels of LRP5/6 and Krm1/2, and down-regulate their mRNA levels of β-catenin.

Conclusion: Compared with myeloma cells, the SCs from MM patients overexpress DKK-1 binding receptors LRP5/6 and Krm1/2 in response to DKK-1 secreted by myeloma cells, which results in intracellular Wnt signaling inhibition. Our study provides a novel insight into mechanisms of myeloma associated osteolytic lesions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
  • LDL-Receptor Related Proteins / genetics
  • LDL-Receptor Related Proteins / metabolism*
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-6
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / metabolism*
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics
  • Multiple Myeloma / metabolism*
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / genetics
  • Receptors, Cell Surface / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / genetics
  • Signal Transduction / physiology
  • Stromal Cells / metabolism*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Wnt Proteins / genetics
  • Wnt Proteins / metabolism
  • beta Catenin / genetics
  • beta Catenin / metabolism

Substances

  • DKK1 protein, human
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • KREMEN1 protein, human
  • KREMEN2 protein, human
  • LDL-Receptor Related Proteins
  • LRP5 protein, human
  • LRP6 protein, human
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-5
  • Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-6
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Receptors, Cell Surface
  • Wnt Proteins
  • beta Catenin