Purpose: In a multicenter, prospectively randomized study we evaluated bacillus Calmette-Guérin alone vs bacillus Calmette-Guérin plus interferon α-2b and megadose vitamins vs recommended daily allowance vitamins during induction and maintenance intravesical therapy in the treatment of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer.
Materials and methods: Patients who were bacillus Calmette-Guérin naïve with carcinoma in situ, Ta or T1 urothelial cancer were randomized to receive intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin or bacillus Calmette-Guérin plus interferon α-2b. Patients were further randomized to receive a recommended daily allowance or megadose vitamin preparation. Induction bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment was given weekly for 6 weeks, and patients who were recurrence-free received maintenance treatment at 4, 7, 13, 19, 25 and 37 months. Patients were followed with quarterly cystoscopy for 2 years, then semiannually through year 4 and then annually. The primary end point was biopsy confirmed tumor recurrence or positive cytology.
Results: A total of 670 patients were accrued and randomized. At 24-month median followup recurrence-free survival was similar in all groups with 63% in the bacillus Calmette-Guérin with recommended daily allowance vitamins group, 59% in bacillus Calmette-Guérin with megadose vitamins, 55% in bacillus Calmette-Guérin/interferon α-2b with recommended daily allowance vitamins and 61% in bacillus Calmette-Guérin/interferon α-2b with megadose vitamins (p >0.05). The addition of interferon α-2b was associated with a more frequent incidence of fever (11% vs 5%) and constitutional symptoms (18% vs 11%) vs bacillus Calmette-Guérin alone (p <0.05).
Conclusions: Interferon α-2b added to bacillus Calmette-Guérin induction and maintenance intravesical therapy did not decrease tumor recurrence in bacillus Calmette-Guérin naïve cases, but was associated with increased fever and constitutional symptoms. No difference in time to recurrence was present in patients receiving recommended daily allowance vs high dose vitamins.
Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.