Diarrhea induced by infection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus

J Med Invest. 2010 Aug;57(3-4):179-82. doi: 10.2152/jmi.57.179.


Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a human pathogen that naturally inhabits marine and estuarine environments. Infection with V. parahaemolyticus is often associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, causing gastroenteritis with watery diarrhea. The presence of two type III secretion system (T3SS) proteins, thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), has been closely associated with the severity of diarrheal illness. TDH and TRH have various biological activities including hemolytic activity, cardiotoxicity, and enterotoxicity. T3SS1 is involved in cytotoxicity to host cells and orchestrates a multifaceted host cell infection by induction of autophagy, cell rounding, and cell lysis. T3SS2 is thought to be related to the enterotoxicity of V. parahaemolyticus. The activities of inducing diarrhea of each of the virulence factors were summarized in this review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / physiology
  • Bacterial Proteins / toxicity
  • Bacterial Secretion Systems / genetics
  • Bacterial Secretion Systems / physiology
  • Bacterial Toxins / genetics
  • Bacterial Toxins / toxicity
  • Diarrhea / etiology*
  • Diarrhea / microbiology
  • Food Microbiology
  • Foodborne Diseases / etiology*
  • Foodborne Diseases / microbiology
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Hemolysin Proteins / genetics
  • Hemolysin Proteins / physiology
  • Hemolysin Proteins / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Seafood / microbiology
  • Seafood / toxicity
  • Vibrio Infections / etiology*
  • Vibrio Infections / microbiology
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus / genetics
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus / pathogenicity*
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus / physiology
  • Virulence / genetics
  • Virulence / physiology


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Bacterial Secretion Systems
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin protein, Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • thermostable direct hemolysin