In a prospective 4-year follow-up study, 26 out of 31 patients initially diagnosed as cycloid psychoses were investigated (anxiety-happiness psychosis n = 15; confusion psychosis n = 8; motility psychosis n = 3). Patients were independently interviewed by two clinical researchers. 61.5% showed one or several 'first-rank symptoms' according to Schneider. In addition, the SADS-LA was applied for RDC and DSM-IIIR diagnoses. According to these classification systems most of the patients were diagnosed as schizophrenic or schizoaffective. Personal interview as well as application of the Strauss-Carpenter Outcome Scale indicated a highly favorable clinical outcome, i.e. lack of affective or behavioral defective states in literally all patients of the study. These results justify the distinction of the cycloid psychoses as a nosological entity in general and--less convincingly--of the three subtypes of cycloid psychoses.