The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of intragastric administration with two strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (Bifido A and Bifido B), in gnotobiotic and conventional mice, challenged with Salmonella Typhimurium. In vitro antagonism test showed that the two strains were able to produce antagonistic substances against various pathogenic microorganisms. In an ex vivo antagonism test the production of antagonistic substances was observed only against three out ten pathogens tested. Both Bifidobacterium strains were able to colonize and to maintain high population levels in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic mice. In addition, the two strains had low and limited translocation ability and did not cause any histological lesion in any of the organs analyzed. Both strains were able to reduce the fecal number of Salmonella in gnotobiotic mice challenged with the pathogen, but only Bifido B was able to confer a protection as demonstrated by a lower mortality. Higher levels of sIgA and IL-10 were observed only in Bifido B mono-associated mice when compared to germ free group. We could conclude that, among the parameters analyzed, the strain Bifido B exhibited the more desirable characteristics to be used as a probiotic.