Determinants of outcome after surgical treatment of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010 Nov;140(5):1092-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.07.087. Epub 2010 Sep 17.


Objectives: Identification of variables influencing surgical outcome in patients treated for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries.

Methods: A total of 90 consecutive patients (median age, 12 months; range, 20 days to 35 years), who had primarily undergone either 1-stage unifocalization (n = 69) or palliation to promote native pulmonary arterial development (n = 21), were studied. Chromosome 22q11 deletion had occurred in 37% of the cases. Ventricular septal defect closure was accomplished in 70 patients (78%), with a mean postoperative right/left ventricular pressure ratio of 0.48 ± 0.14.

Results: The rate of 14-year survival, freedom from conduit reintervention, and freedom from percutaneous intervention on the pulmonary arteries was 75%, 46%, and 52%, respectively. At a median interval of 95 months (range, 1.5-164 months), the right/left ventricular pressure ratio did not differ significantly from early postoperatively. Univariate analysis showed that an absence of confluent intrapericardial pulmonary arteries favorably affected the postoperative right/left ventricular pressure ratio after ventricular septal defect closure (P = .04). Kaplan-Meier estimates showed age of 30 days or younger (P = .0004) and weight of 3 kg or less (P = .0004) at unifocalization and chromosome 22q11 deletion (P = .001) significantly affected survival. Chromosome 22q11 deletion was significantly associated with mortality, even in the Cox regression model (hazard ratio, 8.26; P = .003). Finally, ventricular septal defect closure during single-stage and single/multiple-stage procedures significantly correlated with both early (P = .0013 and P < .00001, respectively) and overall (P = .013 and P = .0007, respectively) survival.

Conclusions: The results of surgery were satisfactory and durable, despite the need for repeated percutaneous or surgical reinterventions. The outcomes were negatively affected by neonatal age and low body weight and positively affected by simultaneous or staged ventricular septal defect closure. Finally, chromosome 22q11 deletion remained an independent variable affecting survival.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aorta / physiopathology*
  • Body Weight
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures* / mortality
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22
  • Collateral Circulation*
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / genetics
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / mortality
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / physiopathology
  • Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Palliative Care
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Pulmonary Atresia / genetics
  • Pulmonary Atresia / mortality
  • Pulmonary Atresia / physiopathology
  • Pulmonary Atresia / surgery*
  • Pulmonary Circulation*
  • Regional Blood Flow
  • Reoperation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors
  • Rome
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / genetics
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / mortality
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / physiopathology
  • Tetralogy of Fallot / surgery*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Ventricular Function, Left
  • Ventricular Pressure
  • Young Adult