Proper indications for a second surgical intervention in patients with colorectal cancer have always been a controversial subject. Surgeons find benefit in a second-look operation where a limited extent of cancer is discovered and resected with negative margins. However, a negative exploratory laparotomy or an intervention that is unable to achieve an R0 resection provides little or no benefit. Unfortunately, this type of intervention may place the patient in a worse condition, leading to morbidity or mortality. This manuscript attempts to define clinical parameters of primary colorectal cancer that are associated with a pattern of recurrence and that can be definitively addressed by second-look surgery. Also, new surgical technologies that may assist in achieving a potentially curative resection of local-regional recurrence are described. Cytoreductive surgery with peritonectomy and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy with hyperthermia is presented as a new treatment option for reoperative surgery. A new management plan utilized in patients at high risk for local-regional recurrence may result in a high likelihood of conversion of a second-look cancer-positive patient to a long-term survivor.