Peptide hormone isoforms: N-terminally branched PYY3-36 isoforms give improved lipid and fat-cell metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

J Pept Sci. 2010 Nov;16(11):664-73. doi: 10.1002/psc.1281.


The prevalence of obesity is increasing with an alarming rate worldwide and there is a need for efficacious satiety drugs. PYY3-36 has been shown to play a role in hypothalamic appetite regulation and novel analogs targeting the Y2 receptor have potential as drugs for the treatment of obesity. We have designed a series of novel PYY3-36 isoforms, by first adding the dipeptide Ile-Lys N-terminal to the N(α) of Ser-13 in PYY13-36 and then anchoring the N-terminal segment, e.g. PYY3-12, to the new Lys N(ε)-amine. We hypothesized that such modifications would alter the folding of PYY, due to changes in the turn motif, which could change the binding mode to the Y receptor sub-types and possibly also alter metabolic stability. In structure-affinity/activity relationship experiments, one series of PYY isoforms displayed equipotency towards the Y receptors. However, an increased Y2 receptor potency for the second series of PYY isoforms resulted in enhanced Y receptor selectivity compared to PYY3-36. Additionally, acute as well as chronic mice studies showed body-weight-lowering effects for one of the PYY isoforms, which was also reflected in a reduction of circulating leptin levels. Interestingly, while the stability and pharmacokinetic profile of PYY3-36 and the N-terminally modified PYY3-36 analogue were identical, only mice treated with the branched analogue showed marked increases in adiponectin levels as well as reductions in non-esterified free fatty acids and triglycerides.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Appetite Regulation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mice, Obese
  • Obesity / drug therapy*
  • Peptide Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Peptide YY / blood
  • Peptide YY / pharmacokinetics
  • Peptide YY / therapeutic use*
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • Protein Isoforms / therapeutic use*
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide Y / metabolism
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • Peptide Hormones
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Neuropeptide Y
  • Peptide YY