An endovascular canine middle cerebral artery occlusion model for the study of leptomeningeal collateral recruitment

Invest Radiol. 2011 Jan;46(1):34-40. doi: 10.1097/RLI.0b013e3181f0cbc7.


Objectives: This work aimed to refine a large animal in minimally invasive reversible middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (MCAO) model to account for leptomeningeal collateral formation.

Materials and methods: An angiographically based methodology allowed for transient MCA and carotid terminus occlusion in 12 mongrel dogs and assessment of pial collateral recruitment. Outcome measures included 1- and 24-hour magnetic resonance imaging-based infarct volume calculation, a behavioral scale and histopathologic sections.

Results: MCAO succeeded in 8 of 12 dogs (67% efficiency). One-hour postreperfusion infarct volume predicted 24-hour postreperfusion infarct volume (r = 0.997, P < 0.0001). Pial collateral recruitment varied with time and reproducibly assessed predicted infarct volume on 1-hour postreperfusion mean diffusivity maps (P < 0.0001; r = 0.946) and 24-hour fluid-attenuated inversion recovery FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging (P = 0.0033; r = 0.961). The canine stroke scale score correlated with infarct volumes and pial collateral score.

Conclusion: This canine MCAO model produces defined cerebral infarct lesions whose volumes correlate with leptomeningeal collateral formation and canine behavior.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Angiography
  • Animals
  • Anticoagulants / therapeutic use
  • Brain Ischemia / diagnosis*
  • Brain Ischemia / pathology
  • Brain Ischemia / therapy
  • Carotid Arteries / pathology*
  • Clopidogrel
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Dogs
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Heparin / therapeutic use
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / diagnosis*
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / therapy
  • Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Statistics as Topic
  • Ticlopidine / analogs & derivatives
  • Ticlopidine / therapeutic use


  • Anticoagulants
  • Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
  • Heparin
  • Clopidogrel
  • Ticlopidine