The design and analysis of case-control studies with biased sampling

Biometrics. 1990 Dec;46(4):963-75.


A design is proposed for case-control studies in which selection of subjects for full variable ascertainment is based jointly on disease status and on easily obtained "screening" variables that may be related to the disease. Recruitment of subjects follows an independent Bernoulli sampling scheme, with recruitment probabilities set by the investigator in advance. In particular, the sampling can be set up to achieve, on average, frequency matching, provided prior estimates of the disease rates or odds ratios associated with screening variables such as age and sex are available. Alternatively--for example, when studying a rare exposure--one can enrich the sample with certain categories of subject. Following such a design, there are two valid approaches to logistic regression analysis, both of which allow for efficient estimation of effects associated with the screening variables that were allowed to bias the recruitment. The statistical properties of the estimators are compared, both for large samples, based on asymptotics, and for small samples, based on simulations.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies*
  • Humans
  • Mathematics
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Probability
  • Stochastic Processes