Background: Anterior segment cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, which can be presented as anterior uveitis and corneal endotheliitis, has recently been reported in immunocompetent patients. We would like to access the validity of two presumed characteristic clinical profiles: profile 1, non-herpes simplex virus (HSV)/varicella zoster virus (VZV) corticosteroid-recalcitrant inflammatory ocular hypertensive syndrome (IOHS), and profile 2, corneal endotheliitis with specific coin-shaped keratic precipitates (KPs), that could be helpful in identifying CMV anterior segment intraocular infection.
Methods: Patients with either profile 1 or profile 2 or both were enrolled consecutively from the uveitis service in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, between January 1, 2006 and May 31, 2010. Diagnostic anterior chamber tapping was performed and followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect herpesviridae DNA including HSV I and II, VZV, CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus.
Results: Thirty-one eyes of 30 patients (21 males and nine females) were enrolled in this study. CMV DNA PCR was positive in 29 eyes of 28 patients (20 males and eight females). Nineteen of 20 eyes (19 patients) in profile 1 had positive CMV PCR. Ten of 11 eyes (11 patients) in profile 2 had positive CMV PCR. The positive predictive value of profile 1 and profile 2 was 94.7% and 90.9%, respectively. The positive predictive value of combining the two profiles was 93.3%.
Conclusions: Non-HSV/ZVZ corticosteroid-recalcitrant IOHS and corneal endotheliitis with specific coin-shaped KPs could be used as the screening tool for CMV anterior segment intraocular infection.